Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

Lee E. Goldstein,* Andrew M. Fisher, Chad A. Tagge, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Libor Velisek, John A. Sullivan, Chirag Upreti, Jonathan M. Kracht, Maria Ericsson, Mark W. Wojnarowicz, Cezar J. Goletiani, Giorgi M. Maglakelidze, Noel Casey, Juliet A. Moncaster, Olga Minaeva, Robert D. Moir, Christopher J. Nowinski, Robert A. Stern, Robert C. Cantu, James Geiling, Jan K. Blusztajn, Benjamin L. Wolozin, Tsuneya Ikezu,
Thor D. Stein, Andrew E. Budson, Neil W. Kowall, David Chargin, Andre Sharon, Sudad Saman, Garth F. Hall, William C. Moss, Robin O. Cleveland, Rudolph E. Tanzi, Patric K. Stanton, Ann C. McKee*

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: lgold{at}bu.edu (L.E.G.); amckee{at}bu.edu (A.C.M.)

Published 16 May 2012, Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134ra60 (2012)
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003716

This PDF file includes:

  1. Materials and Methods
  2. References
  3. Table S1. Summary of antibodies used in this study.
  4. Table S2. Murine blast neurotrauma model blast parameters.
  5. Table S3. Shock tube blast compared to equivalent explosive blast.
  6. Fig. S1. Phosphorylated tau axonopathy in a single axon from the brain of a 22- year-old male military veteran with exposure to a single improvised explosive device blast and persistent blast-related traumatic brain injury symptoms.
  7. Fig. S2. Absence of CTE neuropathology in a representative postmortem human brain from 21-year-old male control subject without known history of blast exposure or concussive injury.
  8. Fig. S3. Schematic and geometry of the murine blast neurotrauma shock tube system.
  9. Fig. S4. Reproducibility of shock tube blast static and reflected pressure.
  10. Fig. S5. Peak reflected and static incident pressure as a function of shock tube burst pressure.
  11. Fig. S6. Shock wave velocity (Mach) regression analysis.
  12. Fig. S7. X-T wave diagram demonstrating positional and temporal features of the blast shock wave.
  13. Fig. S8. Unperfused C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after single shock tube blast exposure.
  14. Fig. S9. Neuropathology in the CA3 field and dentate gyrus in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  15. Fig. S10. Decreased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity in the brainstem and neuronal dropout in the cerebellum of C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  16. Fig. S11. Electron micrographic montage of the hippocampus CA1 field in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  17. Fig. S12. High-magnification electron micrographs of the hippocampus CA1 field in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after single-blast exposure.
  18. Fig. S13. Perivascular ultrastructural pathology in the hippocampus CA1 stratum radiatum in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  19. Fig. S14. Perivascular ultrastructural pathology in the hippocampus CA1 stratum radiatum in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  20. Fig. S15. Perivascular ultrastructural pathology in the hippocampus CA1 stratum radiatum in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  21. Fig. S16. Perivascular ultrastructural pathology in the hippocampus CA1 stratum radiatum in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  22. Fig. S17. Myelin figure in the hippocampus CA1 stratum pyramidale in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  23. Fig. S18. A microglial cell amidst myelinated axons in the hippocampus CA1 stratum alveus in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  24. Fig. S19. Autophagy and mitophagy in the hippocampus CA1 field in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  25. Fig. S20. Degenerating ("dark") pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus CA1 stratum pyramidale in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  26. Fig. S21. Degenerating (dark) pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus CA1 stratum pyramidale in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  27. Fig. S22. Degenerating (dark) pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus CA1 stratum pyramidale in a C57BL/6 mouse brain 2 weeks after exposure to a single shock tube blast.
  28. Fig. S23. Electrode placements for axonal conduction velocity and synaptic plasticity experiments.
  29. Fig. S24. Schaffer collateral–CA1 synaptic input-output relations illustrating the absence of long-term effects of blast exposure on baseline synaptic transmission.
  30. Fig. S25. Blast-induced deficits in cAMP-induced long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses are bilateral and persistent.
  31. Fig. S26. Model of blast- and concussion-related TBI and sequelae, including CTE.
  32. Video S1 legend

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  1. Video S1 (.avi format). Mouse head kinematics during exposure to a single shock tube blast.

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