Instructions for authors of new research articles

(Initial Submission)


Original research published in Science Translational Medicine should report significant progress towards the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of disease; serve as a template for future explorations in the field of translational medicine; transform our understanding of human biology; be highly innovative in its conceptual approach to a given problem; or catalyze new directions toward improved human health. Such research articles will provide insights and evidence with influence beyond their own fields. Science Translational Medicine will publish research articles that meet rigorous criteria of scientific excellence and innovation. Studies, particularly those of an interdisciplinary nature, from a wide variety of disciplines are welcome. Disciplines include (but are not limited to): bioengineering, cancer, cardiovascular disease, devices and diagnostics, diabetes and metabolic diseases, drug development and delivery, genomic medicine, infectious disease, imaging, immunotherapy and vaccines, neurology, neurodegenerative disease, psychiatry, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

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Criteria and process for evaluation

Research Articles should report major advances and the results should represent substantial progress toward improving the diagnosis or treatment of a disease. Papers will be evaluated for their translational importance, technical rigor and novelty. All papers will undergo an initial screening by staff editors and members of the Scientific Advisory Board. Only those most likely to be ultimately published will be sent for in depth peer review. The Science Translational Medicine editors are committed to a rapid, thorough and fair peer-review process.

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General Editorial Policies

Authors should familiarize themselves with the general editorial policies of Science Translational Medicine before submitting their manuscript. These policies spell out the rights and responsibilities that authors agree to when submitting and publishing their article in Science Translational MedicineThis information can be accessed here.

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Format and Style

Submit your Research Article to Science Translational Medicine in Microsoft Word's .docx format. Use of our Word template for preparation of your Research Article will facilitate accurate preparation and processing. Download a copy of our Word template here.

Submitted Research Articles should be no more than 10,000 words in length (including main text, references and figure legends) and may have up to 8 figures/tables. All Research Articles should include a Title, Abstract and Single Sentence Summary as well as the following sections: Introduction, Results, Discussion, Materials and Methods, References and Notes. Supplementary Materials are permitted (see the section on Supplementary Materials below) but should be limited to information that is not essential for the general understanding of the research presented in the main text of the paper. All data must be shown; references to unpublished results or data not shown are not permitted.

Use double spacing throughout the text, tables, figure legends, and References and Notes. Electronic files should be formatted for U.S. letter paper. Technical terms should be defined. Symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms should be defined the first time they are used. All tables and figures should be cited in numerical order. For best results use Times and Symbol fonts only.

The manuscript should be assembled in the following order:

(For easy accurate assembly, download a copy of our Word template here.)

So that we can easily identify sections of your paper, even if you do not use our template, please begin each section with the specific key words listed below. Please do not use paragraph breaks in the title, author list, or abstract.

One Sentence Summary:




Materials and Methods

References and Notes (followed by a numbered list)
Figure Captions: Begin each figure caption with a label, "Fig. 1." for example, as a new paragraph
Table Captions: Begin each table caption with a label, "Table 1." for example, as a new paragraph)
Supplementary Materials: A list of the supplementary materials, followed by the actual text of the Supplementary Materials.

Title: should be no more than 135 characters (including spaces).

Single sentence summary:  should be written in an accessible style and should capture the most important points of the study. It cannot be more than 150 characters (including spaces).

Authors and their affiliated institutions, linked by superscript numbers, should be listed beneath the title on the opening page of the manuscript.

Abstracts explain to the general reader why the research was done, what was found and why the results are important. The abstract should present background information to convey the context of the research, give a general idea of the methodology used, describe the results, and draw general conclusions about the clinical implications of the work. The Abstract is distinct from the main body of the text and thus should not be the only source of background information critical to understanding the manuscript. Please do not include citations or undefined abbreviations in the Abstract. Abstracts for Research Articles must be under 250 words.

Introduction The manuscript should start with a brief introduction describing the paper's importance. The clinical problem addressed by the research should be described in detail. The introduction should provide sufficient background information to make the article intelligible to readers in other disciplines, and sufficient context such that the importance of the experimental findings is clear.

Results The results should describe the experiments performed and the findings observed. The results section should be divided into subsections to delineate different experimental themes.  All data must be shown either in the main text or in the Supplementary Materials; references to unpublished data or data not shown are not allowed.

Discussion The discussion describes the conclusions that can be drawn from the results, as well as the significance and implications of the research. A paragraph discussing the limitations of the study must be included. Generally, the issues that will need to be addressed before application to human health should also be described.

Materials and Methods The Materials and Methods section should provide sufficient information to allow replication of the results. At the beginning of the Materials and Methods a Study Design section must be included that describes the objectives and design of the study, as well as prespecified components. See Experimental Design and Statistics Guidelines below for details. In addition, include a section entitled Statistical Analysis at the end of the Materials and Methods that fully describes the statistical methods used with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results. The values for NP, and the specific statistical test performed for each experiment should be included in the main text and appropriate figure legends. For papers that involve a method that would benefit from the publication of a step-by-step protocol, we encourage authors to consider submitting a detailed protocol to our collaborative partner, Bio-protocol. See Experimental Design and Statistics Guidelines below for details.

List of Supplementary Materials List your supplementary items, including titles for each of the supplementary figures, tables, data files, movies or other files.

References and Notes are numbered in the order in which they are cited, first through the text, then through the figure and table legends and finally through Supplementary Materials. Place citation numbers for references and notes within parentheses, italicized: (18, 19) (18-20) (18, 20-22). There should be only one reference list covering citations in the paper and Supplementary Materials. Each reference should have a unique number; do not combine references or embed references in notes. Any references to in-press manuscripts at the time of submission should be given a number in the text and placed, in correct sequence, in the reference list. We do not allow citation to personal communications or unpublished data; “in press” references are not allowed at the time of publication. We do allow citations to papers posted at arXiv or bioRxiv. Do not use op. cit., ibid., or et al. (in place of the complete list of authors' names). Journal article references should be complete, including the full list of authors, the full titles, and the inclusive pagination. See the Science Translational Medicine Citation Style below for details of citation style.

Acknowledgments should be gathered into a paragraph after the final numbered reference. This section should start by acknowledging non-author contributions, and then should provide information under the following headings: 

Funding: include complete funding information; Author contributions: include a complete list of each author’s contributions to the paper (we encourage you to follow the CRediT model); Competing interests: competing interests of all authors including all paid and unpaid consulting must be listed (all authors must also fill out the Conflict of Interest form). Where authors have no competing interests, this should also be declared. Data and materials availability: Any restrictions on materials such as an MTA must be stated and a copy of the MTA provided to the editors. Accession numbers for any data relating to the paper and deposited in a public database must be provided. If all data is in the paper and supplementary materials include the sentence: “All data associated with this study are available in the main text or the supplementary materials.” All data, code, and materials used in the analysis must be made available to any researcher for purposes of reproducing or extending the analysis.

Tables should be included after the references and should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should be called out within the text and numbered in the order of their citation in the text. The first sentence of the table legend should be a brief descriptive title. Every vertical column should have a heading, consisting of a title with the unit of measure in parentheses. Units should not change within a column. Centered headings of the body of the table can be used to break the entries into groups. Footnotes should contain information relevant to specific entries or parts of the table.

Figure Legends should be double-spaced in numerical order and included in the text file immediately after each figure. A short figure title should be given as the first line of the legend.  Nomenclature, abbreviations, symbols, and units used in a figure should match those used in the text.

Figures should be called out within the text. Figures should be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. They should be submitted as part of the online submission embedded in the Word file (with legend below). See below for detailed instructions on preparation of and preferred formats for your figures.

Supplementary Materials (SM) can accommodate various types of auxiliary information of use to the reader, including material not presentable in a text format. For initial submission, the Supplementary Materials should be prepared as a separate .docx or.pdf file containing figures with the caption below, and tables with the caption below. Other file types can also be accommodated. We encourage authors to provide original data in SM. We can host supplementary figures and legends, detailed materials and methods, video files, audio files, original data files, and large data sets. All SM should be accompanied by a brief text description, similar to a caption. The first sentence of this caption should be a title, and the titles of the SM items should be listed immediately before the References section in the main text. The SM should not be essential to the general understanding of the research presented in the main text of the paper.

References only cited in the Supplementary Materials should be included at the end of the reference section of the main text, and the reference numbering should continue as if the Supplementary Materials was a continuation of the main text.

Units of measure should be metric and follow SI convention.

Experimental Design and Statistics Guidelines

Study Design

In an ideal study, the following components will be specified before the initiation of the experiments or trial. In the first section of the Materials and Methods, which should be titled Study Design, state how you have addressed each of these points (if applicable):

  • Sample size. How did you select your sample size? Did you use a power analysis to calculate the sample size necessary to achieve a reliable measurement of the effect? Did you alter this number during the course of the study and, if so, why?
  • Rules for stopping data collection. Did you define rules for stopping data collection in advance (for example, specific intermediary and final endpoints)?
  • Data inclusion/exclusion criteria. What criteria did you apply for inclusion and exclusion of data? Were these criteria established prospectively?
  • Outliers. How were outliers defined and handled? Were they defined before the beginning of the study? Have you reported outliers that were excluded?
  • Selection of endpoints. Were the primary and secondary endpoints prospectively selected? If multiple endpoints were assessed, were the appropriate statistical corrections applied?
  • Replicates. How many times was each experiment performed? How were the number and composition of replicates determined? Specify both sampling and experimental replicates. Were the results substantiated by repetition under a range of conditions?

In addition, the Study Design section must describe how and why the study was conducted and how the data were collected.

Research objectives. State the objectives of the research, clearly distinguishing pre-specified hypotheses from hypotheses suggested after initiation of the data analyses.

  • Research subjects or units of investigation. Describe the type of research subjects (e.g., cancer patients, healthy volunteers), animals, or experimental units (e.g., cell cultures) studied.
  • Experimental design. Describe the overall design (e.g., randomized controlled clinical trial, controlled laboratory experiment, observational study, survey). Include the treatments that were applied, the types of observations made and the measurement techniques used. The details of the measurement methods should be described in separate sections. If a questionnaire was used to obtain information from human subjects, include it as part of the supplementary materials.
  • Randomization. Include in the description of the study whether the subject or other experimental units were assigned randomly to the various experimental groups and, if not, how the sample was selected (e.g., random sample, stratified sample, matched case-control sets). The population from which they were taken should be specified. How was randomization performed? Were the data collected and processed randomly or were they grouped?
  • Blinding. Include whether the study was blinded and the method used for allocation concealment, blinded conduct of the experiment, and blinded assessment of outcomes. Was the investigator aware to which group a particular animal taken from a cage (for example) was allocated? Were the animal caretakers and investigators conducting the experiments blinded to the allocation sequence? Were the investigators who assessed, measured, or quantified the results blinded to the intervention?


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Statistical Analysis

Generally, authors should describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results.

  • Data pre-processing steps such as transformations, re-coding, re-scaling, normalization, truncation, and handling of below detectable level readings and outliers should be fully described; any removal or modification of data values must be fully acknowledged and justified.
  • Descriptive statistics should be presented for variables that are integral to subsequent analyses and interpretation of the study findings.
  • The number of sampled units, N, upon which each reported statistic is based must be stated.
  • For continuous variables, distributions should be described using graphical displays such as scatterplots, boxplots, or histograms or by reporting measures of central tendency (e.g., mean or median) and dispersion (e.g., SD, interquartile range).
  • For continuous variables that are approximately normally distributed, mean and SD are suitable measures for center and dispersion, respectively. 
  • For continuous variables with asymmetrical distributions, median and range (or interquartile range) are preferred to mean and SD. 
  • All measures of central tendency or dispersion that are used should be identified.
  • For very small samples sizes (e.g., N < 20), presentation of all data values in tabular format is desirable unless presentation would violate restrictions for privacy or confidentiality for human subjects. 
  • Units should be supplied for all measurements.
  • Methods used for conducting statistical tests (e.g., t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Wald test of regression coefficient) and for constructing confidence intervals (e.g., normal-based 95% CI: mean ± 2SD, likelihood ratio-based interval) should be clearly stated. Mention methods used in the Materials and Methods and then provide the individual test name in the figure legend for each experiment.
  • The testing level (alpha) and whether one-sided or two-sided testing was used should be reported for each statistical test; typically two-sided testing is appropriate, but if one-sided testing is used its use should be justified.
  • Adjustments made to alpha levels (e.g., Bonferroni correction) or other procedure used to account for multiple testing (e.g., false discovery rate control) should be reported.
  • When Bayesian analyses are conducted, any assumptions made for prior distributions must be fully described.
  • Sufficient information should be supplied to allow readers to judge whether any assumptions necessary for the validity of statistical approaches (e.g., data are normally distributed, survival data are consistent with proportional hazards in a Cox regression model) have been verified.
  • An accounting of missing data values should be provided; if imputed data values are used in statistical analyses, the methods used for imputation should be fully described. 
  • Novel or highly complex statistical methods or computational algorithms should be adequately described with references supplied to allow readers the opportunity to recreate the calculations; at its discretion, the Journal may require that computer code and data be made available as supplementary information as a condition of publication.

Authors should present results in complete and transparent fashion so that stated conclusions are backed by appropriate statistical evaluation and limitations of the study are frankly discussed.

  • Point estimates of population parameters (e.g., mean, correlation coefficient, slope) or comparative measures (e.g., mean difference, odds ratio, hazard ratio) should be accompanied by a measure of uncertainty such as a standard error or a confidence interval.
  • Results of each statistical test should be reported in full with the value of the test statistic and p-value, and not simply reported as significant or non-significant; more than two significant digits on p-values are usually not needed except in situations of extreme multiple testing such as in genetic association studies where stringent corrections for multiple testing might be used.
  • Any results that are reported to constitute a blinded, independent validation of a statistical model (or mathematical classifier or predictor) must be accompanied by a detailed explanation that includes: 1) specification of the exact “locked down” form of the model, including all data processing steps, algorithm for calculating the model output, and any cutpoints that might be applied to the model output for final classification, 2) date on which the model or predictor was fully locked down in exactly the form described, 3) name of the individual(s) who maintained the blinded data and oversaw the evaluation (e.g., honest broker), 4) statement of assurance that no modifications, additions, or exclusion were made to the validation data set from the point at which the model was locked down and that neither the validation data nor any subset of it had ever been used to assess or refine the model being tested.

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Reporting Guidelines 

Authors are encouraged to follow published standard reporting guidelines for the study discipline. Many of these can be found at the EQUATOR website

Type of Study


Animal studies


Prognostic marker studies


Diagnostic markers


Meta-analysis of observational studies in medicine

MOOSE Stroup et al. JAMA. 2000;283:2008-2012

Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of health care interventions


Cohort and case-control studies


Genetic association studies


Tumor marker studies

Simon RM, Paik S, and Hayes DF J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101:1446-1452

Studies using biospecimens


Rodent model studies

Hollingshead MG J. Natl Cancer Inst 2008;100:1500-1510

Microarray-based studies for clinical outcomes

Table 3 in Dupuy A and Simon RM J. Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 99:147-57


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Guidelines for Specific Types of Studies

Human subjects research

Informed consent must be obtained for studies on humans after the nature and possible consequences of the studies are explained. A statement that informed consent was obtained must also appear in the manuscript. All research on humans must have approval from the institutional IRB (Institutional Review Board) or an equivalent body. The editors reserve the right to request IRB documents associated with a particular paper.

Clinical trials

A CONSORT statement includes recommendations, a checklist of items that should be included in a comprehensive report, and a participant flow diagram. The recommended checklist should be completed and provided at the time of manuscript submission. The recommended trial flow diagram may be presented as a figure (usually Fig. 1). Reports of randomized controlled trials that do not conform to the CONSORT guidelines may be returned to authors for revision prior to formal review. 

Registration of clinical trials. Clinical trials should be registered in accordance with the criteria outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (, including the June 2007 update. Authors should provide the trial registration number in the Acknowledgements section and provide a link to the trial registration, to be cited as a reference.

Biomarker studies

Putative biomarkers must be evaluated with an independent validation set. Reports of unvalidated biomarkers will only be considered in the context of a clear experimental, mechanistic connection to disease or other unique contribution to understanding of disease or clinical practice. A statement should be included in all biomarker papers describing how overfitting (training models on large numbers of variables measured on small numbers of subjects) and other forms of bias were avoided. We strongly recommend all papers reporting potential new biomarkers be evaluated by an independent statistician before submission.

Modeling studies

Computational models should be validated either experimentally or through a dataset independent of the training set. All assumptions should be clearly stated with sources provided in the references and notes section. The code/algorithm used for the study must be included as a file in the Supplementary Materials to allow replication of the results by interested readers.

Animal studies

For all animal experimentation described in the manuscript, Science Translational Medicine requires that authors state in the Methods section their adherence to the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, or the equivalent. Species, strain, sex, and age of laboratory animals should be provided in the main text or supplementary materials.

Genetically modified animals. To avoid confounding effects of inbred strain background, littermate controls should generally be used, although exceptions may be allowed. Justification for other control animals should be included. Authors should fully describe the source of their animals and number of times backcrosses were performed.

Preparation of Figures

Creating your figures It is best to create your figures as vector-based files such as those produced by Adobe Illustrator. Vector-based files will give us maximum flexibility for sizing your figures properly without losing resolution, as they can be altered in size while maintaining high print-quality resolution. We cannot accept PowerPoint files or files that are not readable by Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand, or Adobe Illustrator. To keep file sizes reasonable, please save art at a resolution of 150 to 300 dots per inch (dpi) for initial submission. A higher resolution applies for figures submitted at the revision stage. Digital color art should be submitted as CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) rather than RGB (Red, Green, Blue).

Figure layout and scaling Electronic figures should be sized to fit on single 8.5" × 11" or A4 paper, preferably at 1 (3.5 inches), 1.5 (5.0 inches) or 2 (7.3 inches) columns wide. In laying out information in a figure, the objective is to maximize the space given to presentation of the data. Avoid wasted white space and clutter.

  • The figure's title should be at the beginning of the figure legend, not in the figure itself.
  • Include the figure's identifying number (e.g., "Fig. 1") on the same manuscript page that includes the figure.
  • Keys to symbols, if needed, should be kept as simple as possible and be positioned so they do not needlessly enlarge the figure. Details can be put into the figure captions.
  • Use solid symbols for plotting data if possible (unless data overlap or there are multiple symbols). Size symbols so that they will be distinguishable when the figure is reduced (6 pt minimum). Line widths should be legible upon reduction (minimum of 0.5 pt at the final reduced size).
  • Panels should be set close to each other, and common axis labels should not be repeated.
  • Scales or axes should not extend beyond the range of the data plotted.
  • Use scale bars in place of, or in addition to, magnifications. Do not use minor tick marks in scales or grid lines. Avoid using y-axis labels on the right that repeat those on the left.

Color-mix and contrast considerations

  • Avoid using red and green together. Color blind individuals will not be able to read the figure
  • Please do not use colors that are close in hue to identify different parts of a figure.
  • Avoid using gray scale.
  • Use white type and scale bars over darker areas of images.

Typefaces and labels

  • Please observe the following guidelines for labels on graphs and figures:
  • Use a sans-serif font whenever possible (we prefer Myriad).
  • Simple solid or open symbols reduce well.
  • Label graphs on the ordinate and abscissa with the parameter or variable being measured, the units of measure in parentheses, and the scale. Scales with large or small numbers should be presented as powers of 10.
  • Avoid the use of light lines and screen shading. Instead, use black-and-white, hatched, and cross-hatched designs for emphasis.
  • Capitalize the first letter in a label only, not every word (and proper nouns, of course).
  • Units should be included in parentheses. Use SI notation. If there is room, write out variables  e.g., Pressure (MPa), Temperature (K).
  • Variables are always set in italics or as plain Greek letters (e.g. PT, m). The rest of the text in the figure should be plain or bold text.
  • Type on top of color in a color figure should be in bold face. Avoid using color type.
  • When figures are assembled from multiple gels or micrographs, a line or space should indicate the border between two original images.
  • Use leading zeros on all decimals e.g., 0.3, 0.55; only report significant digits.
  • Use capital letters for panel labels in multipanel figures: A, B, C, etc. These should be 9 pt and bold in the final figure. When possible, place panel labels at the upper left-hand corner of each figure panel; if a panel is an image, set labels inside the perimeter so as not to waste space.
  • Avoid subpanel labels within a figure panel; instead, maintain the established sequence of panel labels [e.g., use A, B, C, D, E instead of A, B, C(a), C(b), C(c)]. If use of subpanel labels is unavoidable, use lowercase letters (a, b, c). Use numbers (1, 2, 3) only to represent a time sequence of images.
  • When reproducing images that include labels with illegible computer-generated type (e.g., units for scale bars), omit such labels and present the information in the legend instead.

Modification of figures. Science Translational Medicine does not allow certain electronic enhancements or manipulations of micrographs, gels, or other digital images. Figures assembled from multiple photographs or images must indicate the separate parts with lines between them. Linear adjustment of contrast, brightness, or color must be applied to an entire image or plate equally. Nonlinear adjustments must be specified in the figure legend. Selective enhancement or alteration of one part of an image is not acceptable. In addition, Science Translational Medicine may ask authors of papers returned for revision to provide additional documentation of their primary data.

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File formats for initial submission

Initial submissions must be uploaded to our electronic submission website as a Microsoft Word .docx file that contains all components of the paper, including the figures. Create one Word .docx file consisting of the text (title through materials and methods; see above for correct order), references, tables and table legends, figure legends, and embedded figures. Supplementary Materials should be prepared as a separate Word .docx file that includes embedded supplementary figures and captions, as well as supplementary tables. A PDF that includes the main manuscript, figures, tables, and Supplementary Materials is also required at submission. Other Supplementary Materials with file types that cannot be incorporated into a Word .docx document can be uploaded separately to a designated section of the submission site.


See above instructions for creating your original figures. For initial submission, the figure files must be incorporated into the main text .docx file, with the legend below the figure.

Supplementary Materials

Text and figures. Supplementary Materials (supplementary tables and figures plus captions) should be prepared as a separate .docx file. Figures should be embedded in the file.

Video and audio files. Acceptable formats for videos are Quicktime, MPEG and Flash. Keep videos short and the display window small to minimize the file size of the video. Supply caption information with the videos. Edit longer sequences into several small pieces with captions specific to each video sequence. Acceptable formats for audio files are .WAV, .AIFF and .AU. Supply caption information with the audio files. Upload these file types as Auxiliary Supplementary Materials on our submission site. Our system can handle files up to 25 MB.

Other files types. All other file types can be uploaded as Auxiliary Supplementary Materials on our submission site. Our system can handle files up to 25 MB.

Submission Checklist

The following items are required for submission:

  • Cover letter, containing:
    • The title of the paper and a statement of its main point
    • Any information needed to ensure a fair review process, including related manuscripts submitted to other journals
    • Names of colleagues who have reviewed the paper
  • A statement that none of the material has been published or is under consideration elsewhere, including the Internet.
  • Names, telephone, and e-mail addresses for all authors, including selection of one to be corresponding author.
  • Names, affiliations, and e-mail addresses of five potential referees.
  • Any suggested cover illustrations.
  • Written permission from any author who is not an author of your manuscript but whose work is cited as in press. Permission must allow distribution of in press manuscripts or relevant data to reviewers or any interested reader upon publication. A copy of an email is sufficient.
  • Copies of any paper by you or your coauthors that is in press or under consideration elsewhere that relates to the work submitted to Science Translational Medicine, or of any paper that is cited in your paper as in press. These materials should be uploaded as Reference Material in the Supporting File section of our submission site.
  • Within the paper, include:
    • For investigations on humans, a statement indicating that informed consent was obtained after the nature and possible consequences of the studies have been explained
    • For authors using experimental animals, a statement that the animals' care was in accordance with institutional guidelines
    • A one-sentence summary of your paper
    • An Abstract that does not include any cited references
    • Definitions of all symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms
    • Legends for all figures and tables
    • All data (no data not shown and no citations to unpublished results)
    • Descriptions of all statistical tests
    • Complete references. Each citation should include all authors, full article title, journal title, journal volume, year of publication, and first and last page. Please include all authors (do not use et al.).

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Citation style

Science Translational Medicine uses a complete citation format that includes all authors, full titles of journal articles, the journal abbreviation, the volume, the first and last page, and the year of publication. The absolute formatting (what is bold and what is italic) is less important than having a complete citation for each journal article cited.

References and notes are numbered in the order in which they are cited, first through the text, then through the table and figure legends. List a reference only one time. The abbreviations for journal names are taken from the Bibliographic Guide for Editors and Authors(BGEA) or Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Data Base (BIOSIS), a more recent publication. When in doubt, provide the journal's complete name. Spell out cities that are listed after a journal name: Acta Zool. (Stockholm). Do not use op. cit., ibid., 3-m dashes, en dashes, or et al. (in place of the complete list of authors' names). For author names with Jr. or 2nd, etc. see example number 4 in the Journals section. Publisher's names are given in shortened form. "Press" and the like are usually dropped, except Academic Press ("Academic" is an adjective), University Park Press, CRC Press, MIT Press, and Cambridge Univ. Press (for university presses, to distinguish them from the university itself). Only one publisher's location is needed. A few world-renowned cities (for example, Amsterdam, London, Philadelphia, Chicago, New York, Baltimore) can be listed without state or country; less well-known cities and those with names that could be confused take state abbreviations (Cambridge alone for the city in the U.K., but Cambridge, MA). Inclusive page numbers or chapter number must be given when specific articles are referred to within an edited volume.

Please use full citations in the following format:


  1. E. J. Neer, T. Kozasa, Sites for Gα binding on the G protein β subunit overlap with sites for regulation of phospholipase Cb and adenylyl cyclase. J. Biol. Chem273, 16265-16272 (1998).
  2. D. J. Mangelsdorf, C. Thummel, M. Beato, P. Herrlich, G. Schutz, K. Umesono, B. Blumberg, P. Kastner, M. Mark, P. Chambon, R. M. Evans, The nuclear receptor superfamily: The second decade. Cell 83, 835-839 (1995).
  3. J. J. Tesmer, R. K. Sunahara, A. G. Gilman, S. R. Sprang, Crystal structure of the catalytic domains of adenylyl cyclase in a complex with Gs·GTP-γ-S.Science 278, 1907-1916 (1997).
  4. J. D. Brown, M. R. DiChiara, K. R. Anderson, M. A. Gimbrone, Jr., J. N. Topper, MEKK-1, a component of the stress (stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase) pathway, can selectively activate Smad2-mediated transcriptional activation in endothelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 8797-8805 (1999).
  5. J. Burton, C. K. Goldman, P. Rao, M. Moos, T. A. Waldmann, Association of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 with the multichain high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 7329-7333 (1990).
  6. A. Miyawaki, R. Tsien, Monitoring protein conformations and interactions by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mutants of green fluorescent protein.Methods Enzymol., in press.
  7. F. Watson, R. S. Kiernan, D. G. Deavall, A. Varro, R. Dimaline, Transcriptional activation of the rat vesicular monoamine transporter 2 promoter in gastric epithelial cells: Regulation by gastrin. J. Biol. Chem. Papers in Press, published 2000 as 10.1074/jbc.M006697200.
  8. K. L. Clark, P. B. Larsen, X. Wang, C. Chang, Association of the Arabidopsis CTR1 Raf-like kinase with the ETR1 and ERS ethylene receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A95, 5401-5406 (1998) [published erratum appears in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A95, 9060 (1998)]. [style for published erratum]
  9. L. C. Cantley, PI3K pathway. Sci. Signal. (Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling, as seen February 2001), [style for citing a pathway in the Database of Cell Signaling at Science Signaling]
  10. H. R. de Jonge, B. Hogema, B. C. Tilly, Protein N-myristoylation: Critical role in apoptosis and salt tolerance.Sci. STKE 2000, pe1 (2000). [style for citing a Science's STKE paper; note: volume and year are the same]
  11. E. Canalis, Notch signaling in osteoblasts.Sci. Signal. 1, pe17 (2008). [style for citing a Science Signaling article published following title change in January 2008]

– When published in Science Express but not yet in print:
1. W. Jones, B. Smith, Location and function of DNA binding proteins. Science 20 December 2000 (10.4444/science.1054678).

– When published in Science Express and in print:
1. W. Jones, B. Smith, Location and function of DNA binding proteins.Science 252, 1056 (2001); published online 20 December 2000 (10.4444/science.1054678).

Technical reports

1. D. E. Shaw,Technical Report CUCS-29-82 (Columbia University, New York, 1982).

2. F. Press,A Report on the Computational Needs for Physics (National Science Foundation, Washington, DC, 1981). [unpublished or access by title]

3.Assessment of the Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Chemicals (WHO Technical Report Series No. 556, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1974).


1.Title of Symposium Published as a Book, sponsoring organization, city and state of meeting, inclusive dates and year (publisher, publisher's city and state, year).

Paper presented at a meeting (not published)

1. M. Konishi, paper presented at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Anaheim, CA, 10 to 14 October 1984. [sponsoring organization should be mentioned if it is not part of the meeting name]

Theses and unpublished material

1. B. Smith, thesis, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (1973).

2. J. A. Norton, unpublished material.


1. A. M. Lister,Fundamentals of Operating Systems (Springer-Verlag, New York, ed. 3, 1984). [third edition]

2. J. B. Carroll, Ed.,Language, Thought and Reality, Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1956).

3. R. Davis, J. King, in Machine Intelligence, E. Acock and R. Michie, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1976), vol. 8, chap. 3.

4. D. Curtis, in Clinical Neurology of Development, B. Walters, Ed. (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1983), pp. 60-73.

5. Principles and Procedures for Evaluating the Toxicity of Household Substances (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1977). [organization as author and publisher]

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