Research ArticleInfluenza

A multimechanistic antibody targeting the receptor binding site potently cross-protects against influenza B viruses

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Science Translational Medicine  18 Oct 2017:
Vol. 9, Issue 412, eaam5752
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aam5752
  • Fig. 1. In vitro binding and neutralization activities of C12G6.

    (A) Dendrogram of all nonredundant, full-length influenza B HA sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Flu database. The Yamagata lineage strains are labeled within blue boxes, the Victoria lineage strains are labeled within red boxes, and the earlier lineage strains (influenza B strains isolated before the 1980s) are labeled within purple boxes. (B) Binding (EC50 ELISA values) of C12G6 antibody to representative purified viruses from the three influenza B lineages. EC50 values above 104 ng/ml (dashed line) were scored as negative. (C) Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations [IC50s (micrograms per milliliter)] of the indicated antibodies against representative strains from the three influenza B lineages were determined by performing HI assays. The values are representative of three independent experiments. The values below 50 μg/ml are color-filled: red, strong reactivity; yellow, moderate reactivity; light blue, weak reactivity; >50, negative reactivity. (D) Average IC50 values of the indicated antibodies were determined from three independent neutralization experiments using a panel of 18 influenza B virus strains, each plotted as a single symbol. The negative control was C5G6, a chimeric influenza A antibody containing a human IgG1 Fc fragment, CA/2009, a control influenza A virus. Full viral strain designations are listed in table S2.

  • Fig. 2. In vivo prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of C12G6 in mice.

    (A to C) Prophylactic efficacy of C12G6 against lethal challenge with 25 MLD50 (50% mouse lethal dose) of MA-B/Florida/4/2006 (A), MA-B/Brisbane/60/2008 (B), or MA-B/Lee/1940 virus (C). The survival curves of BALB/c mice (n = 5 per group) treated with C12G6 (5, 1.7, 0.6, 0.2, or 0.06 mg/kg) or C5G6 (20 mg/kg) 1 day before lethal challenge are shown. (D to F) For the therapeutic groups, survival curves for BALB/c mice (n = 5 per group) that received C12G6 (10, 5, 1, or 0.2 mg/kg) or C5G6 (20 mg/kg) 1 day after lethal challenge with 25 MLD50 of MA-B/Florida/4/2006 (D), MA-B/Brisbane/60/2008 (E), or MA-B/Lee/1940 (F) virus are shown. (G and H) The virus titers in the lungs of the mice treated with C12G6 (5 mg/kg) prophylactically (G) or C12G6 (10 mg/kg) therapeutically (H) were determined on days 3 and 6 after infection. The control IgG is C5G6. The black bars indicate mean values. The log-rank test was used to assess the significance (*P < 0.05) of survival outcome, and the t test was used to determine the significance of virus titers in the lungs compared to the control IgG–treated group. *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001. TCID50, median tissure culture infectious dose.

  • Fig. 3. Comparison of therapeutic efficacies of C12G6 and other bnAbs in mice.

    (A to F) Survival curves (A and B), body weight change (C and D), and lung viral titers (E and F) for BALB/c mice (n = 5 per group) treated intravenously with antibodies (2 mg/kg), indicated 24 hours after lethal challenge with 25 MLD50 of MA-B/Florida/4/2006 or B/Brisbane/60/2008. Virus titers in the lungs were determined on day 3 after infection. The black bars indicate mean values. The body weight curves represent mean ± 95% confidence interval of the mean. For (A) and (B), statistical analysis was performed by log-rank test. For (C) and (D), comparisons are by area under the curve (AUC) analysis. For (E) and (F), statistical analysis was performed by t test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001, compared to the control IgG–treated group.

  • Fig. 4. Efficacy of C12G6 compared with and in combination with oseltamivir in mice.

    (A and B) Kaplan-Meier survival curves of mice that received C12G6 (10 mg/kg) (open symbols), oseltamivir (25 mg/kg) (closed symbols), or C5G6 (25 mg/kg) (no symbols) at the indicated day after intranasal infection with 25 MLD50 of MA-B/Florida/4/2006 (A) or MA-B/Brisbane/60/2008 (B). The control IgG is C5G6. dpi, days postinfection. (C to H) Survival curves (C and D), body weight change (E and F), and lung viral titers (G and H) of BALB/c mice (n = 5 per group) that received a single treatment of C12G6 or a control IgG (C5G6) intravenously at 2 mg/kg, oseltamivir orally at 25 mg/kg twice a day for 4 days, or a combined treatment of C12G6 and oseltamivir, starting from 2 days after intranasal infection with 25 MLD50 of MA-B/Florida/4/2006 or B/Brisbane/60/2008. The virus titers in lungs were determined on days 4 and 6 after infection. The black bars indicate mean values. The body weight curves represent mean ± 95% confidence interval of the mean. Statistically significant difference of the survival outcome was estimated with the log-rank test. The AUC analysis was used to determine the significance of body weight loss, and the t test was used to assess the significance of lung viral titers. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001, compared to the control IgG–treated group.

  • Fig. 5. Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of C12G6 in ferrets.

    (A to D) Virus titers in nasal washes from ferrets treated with C12G6 (20 mg/kg) or control antibody (C5G6) 1 day before (prophylactic groups) or after (therapeutic groups) intranasal infection with 1 × 107 TCID50 of B/Florida/4/2006 (A and B) or B/Brisbane/60/2008 (C and D). (E to H) Changes in body temperatures of ferrets treated with C12G6 (20 mg/kg) or control antibody (C5G6) 1 day before (prophylactic groups) or after (therapeutic groups) intranasal infection with 1 × 107 TCID50 of B/Florida/4/2006 (E and F) or B/Brisbane/60/2008 (G and H). Nasal washes were collected on the indicated days and titrated by TCID50 assay. Body temperatures are expressed as the percentage of baseline values. The black bars indicate mean values. Statistical analysis was performed by t test. *P < 0.05, compared to the control IgG–treated group.

  • Fig. 6. Epitope mapping of C12G6.

    (A) Amino acid substitutions found in the HA of C12G6-induced escape mutants. (B) Surface representation illustration and conservation analysis of the neutralizing epitope recognized by C12G6 on the HA trimer model of B/Brisbane/60/2008 (Protein Data Bank code: 4FQM) using the DS Visualizer 1.7. The epitope was determined using a molecular docking strategy. One HA protomer of the HA trimer is colored in cyan, whereas the other two protomers are colored in gray. The residues are colored according to the conservation of contact residues across all available influenza B virus sequences: green, more than 98% conserved; yellow, 75 to 98% conserved. Residue numbers are shown, with RBS residues in red and others in black. (C) Reactivity of C12G6 with WT or mutant BR/2008 HAs expressed in HEK293T cells. The mean fluorescence intensities (MFIs) from flow cytometry profiles are shown. Mock, mock-transfected cells. *P < 0.05, compared to the WT group. Statistical analysis was performed by t test. (D) Illustration of the identified key C12G6 epitope residues, colored in red, with the RBS domain colored in blue. The residue numbers with amino acid substitutions found in the C12G6 escape mutants are shown in red, and others are shown in black. (E) Comparison of C12G6 and CR8033 contact residues on influenza B HA. Brown, contact residues unique to C12G6; blue, contact residues unique to CR8033; light yellow, common contact residues of both antibodies. The residue numbers are shown, with RBS residues in red and others in black. (F) Comparison of epitopes of C12G6 and two representative bnAbs (CR8033-like and CR9114-like antibodies) using a competition ELISA test. C12G6 was used as a competitor, and C5G6 was used as a negative control. *P < 0.05, compared to the control group.

  • Fig. 7. Inhibitory mechanisms of C12G6.

    (A) MDCK cells were inoculated with B/Florida/4/2006 (FL/2006) or B/Brisbane/60/2008 (BR/2008) viruses preincubated with C12G6 or polyclonal rabbit sera, as indicated. The expression of influenza B nucleoprotein in MDCK cell monolayers 16 to 18 hours after inoculation was detected by immunofluorescence. Green, infected cells positive for NP protein; blue, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. (B) Immunoblots of influenza B detected in the lysates and supernatants of MDCK cells infected with B/Florida/4/2006 or B/Brisbane/60/2008 and subsequently incubated with different concentrations of C12G6, as indicated. Influenza B was detected using rabbit sera against B/Florida/4/2006 and B/Brisbane/60/2008, respectively. (C) C12G6 protects HAs of B/Florida/4/2006 and B/Brisbane/60/2008 from the pH-induced protease sensitivity associated with membrane fusion. (D to G) ADCC (D and E) or CDC (F and G) activities of the indicated antibodies against B/Florida/4/2006 virus– and B/Brisbane/60/2008 virus–infected MDCK cells, respectively. The bars represent the mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05, compared to the control IgG group.

Supplementary Materials

  • www.sciencetranslationalmedicine.org/cgi/content/full/9/412/eaam5752/DC1

    Materials and Methods

    Fig. S1. A schematic diagram showing the 12G6 generation and selection process.

    Fig. S2. In vitro binding and neutralization activities of mouse antibody 12G6.

    Fig. S3. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the VH and VL chain regions of C12G6.

    Fig. S4. Binding curves for reported Kd values for binding of C12G6 to influenza B HAs.

    Fig. S5. Immunofluorescence assay activity of C12G6 against both lineages of influenza B viruses.

    Fig. S6. Binding of C12G6 to MDCK cells infected with influenza B viruses, detected by flow cytometry.

    Fig. S7. C12G6 binds the B/Florida/4/2006 HA subunit in Western blotting.

    Fig. S8. Expression, purification, and characterization of influenza B HA bnAbs.

    Fig. S9. In vitro neutralization activities (IC50 values) of C12G6 and other reported influenza B HA bnAbs.

    Fig. S10. Body weight change curves of mice treated with C12G6 before or after challenge with influenza B viruses.

    Fig. S11. Immunofluorescence assay activity of anti–influenza B nucleoprotein mAb 4D5 against both lineages of influenza B viruses.

    Fig. S12. Histological analysis of lungs from mice prophylactically treated with C12G6 before infection with influenza B viruses.

    Fig. S13. Histological analysis of lungs from mice therapeutically treated with C12G6 after infection with influenza B viruses.

    Fig. S14. Comparison of therapeutic effects of C12G6 and oseltamivir against influenza B infection in mice.

    Fig. S15. Body weight change curves of ferrets treated with C12G6 before or after challenge with influenza B viruses.

    Fig. S16. Clinical sign of ferrets after prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with C12G6 against influenza B infection.

    Fig. S17. In vivo fitness of mutant B/Hong Kong/537/2009–like viruses.

    Fig. S18. Reactivity of C12G6 with WT or mutant B/Hong Kong/537/2009–like viruses in ELISA.

    Fig. S19. C12G6 does not block HA0 activation.

    Fig. S20. C12G6 inhibits syncytia formation.

    Fig. S21. Red blood cell fusion assay.

    Fig. S22. Comparison of the in vitro binding and neutralizing properties of C12G6 and C12G6-LALA.

    Fig. S23. Serum antibody concentrations after C12G6 or C12G6-LALA treatment.

    Fig. S24. ADCC and CDC activities of C12G6 against the B/Lee/1940 virus strain.

    Fig. S25. Determination of the role of antibody effector functions in the protective efficacy of C12G6.

    Fig. S26. ADCP activity of 12G6 against influenza B viruses.

    Fig. S27. A schematic diagram showing the inhibition mechanisms of C12G6.

    Table S1. ELISA EC50 and SD values of mouse antibodies 12G6 and 5G6, related to fig. S2.

    Table S2. The full designations and abbreviations of the influenza virus strains used in this study.

    Table S3. ELISA EC50 and SD values of C12G6 and C5G6 antibodies, related to Fig. 1B.

    Table S4. Kd for binding of C12G6 to HAs of influenza B strains.

    Table S5. ELISA EC50 and SD values of the indicated antibodies, related to fig. S8B.

    Table S6. Neutralization IC50 and SD values of C12G6 and CR8033-like antibodies, related to Fig. 1D.

    Table S7. Neutralization IC50 and SD values of CR8071-like and CR9114-like antibodies, related to Fig. 1D.

    Table S8. Neutralization IC50 and SD values of 5A7-like and C5G6 antibodies, related to Fig. 1D.

    Table S9. Characterization of interaction surface area.

    Table S10. ELISA EC50 and SD values of C12G6 and C12G6-LALA antibodies, related to fig. S22.

    Table S11. C12G6 reactivity pattern.

    Table S12. HA sequences of influenza B viruses used in this study.

    Table S13. Primary data.

    References (2733)

  • Supplementary Material for:

    A multimechanistic antibody targeting the receptor binding site potently cross-protects against influenza B viruses

    Chenguang Shen, Junyu Chen, Rui Li, Mengya Zhang, Guosong Wang, Svetlana Stegalkina, Limin Zhang, Jing Chen, Jianli Cao, Xingjian Bi, Stephen F. Anderson, Timothy Alefantis, Minwei Zhang, Xiaoyang Cai, Kunyu Yang, Qingbing Zheng, Mujing Fang, Hai Yu, Wenxin Luo, Zizheng Zheng, Quan Yuan, Jun Zhang, James Wai-Kuo Shih, Harry Kleanthous, Honglin Chen, Yixin Chen,*
    Ningshao Xia*

    *Corresponding author. Email: yxchen2008{at}xmu.edu.cn (Y.C.); nsxia{at}xmu.edu.cn (N.X.)

    Published 18 October 2017, Sci. Transl. Med. 9,eaam5752 (2017)
    DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aam5752

    This PDF file includes:

    • Materials and Methods
    • Fig. S1. A schematic diagram showing the 12G6 generation and selection process.
    • Fig. S2. In vitro binding and neutralization activities of mouse antibody 12G6.
    • Fig. S3. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the VH and VL chain regions of C12G6.
    • Fig. S4. Binding curves for reported Kd values for binding of C12G6 to influenza B HAs.
    • Fig. S5. Immunofluorescence assay activity of C12G6 against both lineages of influenza B viruses.
    • Fig. S6. Binding of C12G6 to MDCK cells infected with influenza B viruses, detected by flow cytometry.
    • Fig. S7. C12G6 binds the B/Florida/4/2006 HA subunit in Western blotting.
    • Fig. S8. Expression, purification, and characterization of influenza B HA bnAbs.
    • Fig. S9. In vitro neutralization activities (IC50 values) of C12G6 and other reported influenza B HA bnAbs.
    • Fig. S10. Body weight change curves of mice treated with C12G6 before or after challenge with influenza B viruses.
    • Fig. S11. Immunofluorescence assay activity of anti–influenza B nucleoprotein mAb 4D5 against both lineages of influenza B viruses.
    • Fig. S12. Histological analysis of lungs from mice prophylactically treated with C12G6 before infection with influenza B viruses.
    • Fig. S13. Histological analysis of lungs from mice therapeutically treated with C12G6 after infection with influenza B viruses.
    • Fig. S14. Comparison of therapeutic effects of C12G6 and oseltamivir against influenza B infection in mice.
    • Fig. S15. Body weight change curves of ferrets treated with C12G6 before or after challenge with influenza B viruses.
    • Fig. S16. Clinical sign of ferrets after prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with C12G6 against influenza B infection.
    • Fig. S17. In vivo fitness of mutant B/Hong Kong/537/2009–like viruses.
    • Fig. S18. Reactivity of C12G6 with WT or mutant B/Hong Kong/537/2009–like viruses in ELISA.
    • Fig. S19. C12G6 does not block HA0 activation.
    • Fig. S20. C12G6 inhibits syncytia formation.
    • Fig. S21. Red blood cell fusion assay.
    • Fig. S22. Comparison of the in vitro binding and neutralizing properties of C12G6 and C12G6-LALA.
    • Fig. S23. Serum antibody concentrations after C12G6 or C12G6-LALA treatment.
    • Fig. S24. ADCC and CDC activities of C12G6 against the B/Lee/1940 virus strain.
    • Fig. S25. Determination of the role of antibody effector functions in the protective efficacy of C12G6.
    • Fig. S26. ADCP activity of 12G6 against influenza B viruses.
    • Fig. S27. A schematic diagram showing the inhibition mechanisms of C12G6.
    • Table S1. ELISA EC50 and SD values of mouse antibodies 12G6 and 5G6, related to fig. S2.
    • Table S2. The full designations and abbreviations of the influenza virus strains used in this study.
    • Table S3. ELISA EC50 and SD values of C12G6 and C5G6 antibodies, related to Fig. 1B.
    • Table S4. Kd for binding of C12G6 to HAs of influenza B strains.
    • Table S5. ELISA EC50 and SD values of the indicated antibodies, related to fig. S8B.
    • Table S6. Neutralization IC50 and SD values of C12G6 and CR8033-like antibodies, related to Fig. 1D.
    • Table S7. Neutralization IC50 and SD values of CR8071-like and CR9114-like antibodies, related to Fig. 1D.
    • Table S8. Neutralization IC50 and SD values of 5A7-like and C5G6 antibodies, related to Fig. 1D.
    • Table S9. Characterization of interaction surface area.
    • Table S10. ELISA EC50 and SD values of C12G6 and C12G6-LALA antibodies, related to fig. S22.
    • Table S11. C12G6 reactivity pattern.
    • Table S12. HA sequences of influenza B viruses used in this study.
    • References (27–33)

    [Download PDF]

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S13 (Microsoft Excel format). Primary data.

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