Research ArticleFibrosis

Type 2 immunity is protective in metabolic disease but exacerbates NAFLD collaboratively with TGF-β

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Science Translational Medicine  28 Jun 2017:
Vol. 9, Issue 396, eaal3694
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aal3694

Opposing cytokines in obesity and fibrosis

Polarized cytokine networks can drive immunopathogenesis forward. Obesity that leads to liver fibrosis involves type 1 cytokines, so Hart et al. expected obese mice prone to type 1 cytokine responses to experience more pronounced fibrosis. Instead, they saw that these mice were resistant to steatohepatitis. Fibrotic livers from mice and human biopsies showed type 2 inflammation and recruitment of eosinophils, unlike the inflammation observed in the adipose tissue during obesity. These findings reveal that cytokine activity that is beneficial for the homeostasis of one tissue can be detrimental to another.

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