Research ArticleCancer

Activation of concurrent apoptosis and necroptosis by SMAC mimetics for the treatment of refractory and relapsed ALL

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Science Translational Medicine  18 May 2016:
Vol. 8, Issue 339, pp. 339ra70
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aad2986

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Giving leukemia a SMAC

Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases, or SMAC, is a protein involved in apoptosis, a mechanism of cell death that is commonly targeted by cancer therapies. SMAC mimetics are drugs designed to mimic the action of SMAC. Now, a pair of related articles provides insights into the effects of SMAC mimetics in leukemia. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, McComb et al. show that a SMAC mimetic called birinapant works best when it can activate two different types of cell death: apoptosis and necroptosis. For acute myelocytic leukemia, Brumatti et al. show that birinapant is particularly effective when combined with a caspase inhibitor, which shuts off the apoptotic pathway and promotes cell death by necroptosis. These findings should be helpful for identifying patients most likely to benefit from treatment with SMAC mimetics and selecting effective treatment combinations for these patients.

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