Research ArticlePEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY

Neuregulin stimulation of cardiomyocyte regeneration in mice and human myocardium reveals a therapeutic window

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Science Translational Medicine  01 Apr 2015:
Vol. 7, Issue 281, pp. 281ra45
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa5171

Young at heart: Restoring cardiac function in children

When children are given adult roles in TV commercials, the results range from adorable to brilliant to simply hilarious. But when children with heart disease were given adult medicines in clinical trials, the results were disappointing—and the need for pediatric-specific treatment regimens became clear. In adult mice, the recombinant growth factor neuregulin-1 (rNRG1) stimulates heart regeneration by driving the proliferation of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). Because young mice bear more proliferation-competent cardiomyocytes than do adult animals, Polizzotti et al. asked whether rNRG1 might put cardiomyocyte proliferation into overdrive if given to mice during the neonatal period. To test their hypothesis, the authors treated newborn mice with rNRG1 at various times after heart injury and found that early treatment starting at 1 day of age boosted cardiomyocyte cell division and heart function in a persistent manner relative to treatment regimens that began at 4 days after birth. rNRG1 also drove cardiomyocyte proliferation in heart muscle isolated from human infants with heart disease who were less than 6 months of age, but not in tissue from older pediatric patients. These findings suggest that rNRG1 administration during the neonatal period might be a new therapeutic strategy for pediatric heart disease. Now that would be brilliant.

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