Research ArticleGraft-Versus-Host Disease

G-CSF mobilizes CD34+ regulatory monocytes that inhibit graft-versus-host disease

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Science Translational Medicine  01 Apr 2015:
Vol. 7, Issue 281, pp. 281ra42
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3010435

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Monocytes suppress GVHD

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a highly successful therapy used in patients with bone marrow dysfunction. However, when the stem cell donor cannot be matched to the recipient, the transplanted cells may attack the host in a process called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). D’Aveni et al. now show that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)–mobilized stem cells contain a previously uncharacterized population of immunosuppressive CD34+ cells transcriptionally similar to mature monocytes. These cells induce allogeneic T cell death in response to interferon-γ, resulting in regulatory T cell expansion and immunosuppression. The fraction of these CD34+ monocytes in peripheral blood inversely correlates with GVHD in patients, suggesting that expanding these cells before transplant may decrease the risk of GVHD.

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