Small RNA: From development to regeneration

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Science Translational Medicine  18 Mar 2015:
Vol. 7, Issue 279, pp. 279fs12
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa7538


  • Fig. 1 miRNAs in cardiac development and regeneration.

    Spatiotemporal regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation is crucial for building a functional heart of proper proportions. Embryonic cardiomyocytes rapidly proliferate to build a functional myocardium and are regulated by Hippo as well as Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling during development. The maturing heart then undergoes a transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth, and the majority of neonatal cardiomyocytes exit the cell cycle shortly after birth. Increased cardiac Hippo signaling is crucial for inhibiting cardiomyocyte proliferation in the normal heart. After myocardial infarction, transient activation of miR-302-367 or other miRNAs, such as miR-17-92 (10), improves functional recovery of damaged mouse myocardium by promoting adult cardiomyocyte proliferation, as shown by Tian et al. (2). However, constitutively active miR-302-367 leads to deficient Hippo activity—via Mst1, Lats2, and Mob1b—and cardiomegaly in mice.


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