Research ArticleEbola

Immune Parameters Correlate with Protection Against Ebola Virus Infection in Rodents and Nonhuman Primates

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Science Translational Medicine  31 Oct 2012:
Vol. 4, Issue 158, pp. 158ra146
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004582

Figures

  • Fig. 1

    Survival and weight loss after challenge, and cellular and humoral immune response after vaccination in mice. (A and B) Protective efficacy (A) and weight loss (B) of vaccinated wild-type (WT) and knockout mice represented as percentage survival and weight change, respectively. (C) IFN-γ response. The number of IFN-γ–secreting cells is expressed as SFCs per million splenocytes. (D) Serum NAb levels. Antibody levels are reported as reciprocal dilutions. (E) Total serum IgG levels. Antibody levels are reported as A405. Error bars represent means ± SD.

  • Fig. 2

    Survival and weight loss after challenge, humoral immune response after vaccination in guinea pigs. (A and B) Protective efficacy (A) and weight loss (B) of survivor and nonsurvivor guinea pigs represented as percentage survival and weight change, respectively. (C) Serum NAb response. Antibody levels are reported as reciprocal dilutions. (D and E) Total serum IgG levels with GA-ZEBOV lysate (D) or His-tagged ZGP (E) as the capture antigen. Antibody levels are reported as A405. The animal that succumbed to ZEBOV infection 20 days after challenge was highlighted (green diamond). Error bars represent means ± SD.

  • Fig. 3

    Humoral immune response in cynomolgus macaques. (A) Serum NAb levels 28 days after vaccination. Antibody levels are reported as reciprocal dilutions. (B) Total serum IgG levels 28 days after vaccination. Antibody levels are reported as A405. (C) Serum NAb levels 7 days after challenge. Antibody levels are reported as reciprocal dilutions. (D) Total serum IgG levels 7 days after challenge. Antibody levels are reported as A405. (E and F) Total serum IgG levels immediately before (E) or 6 days after (F) challenge for VSV-vaccinated NHPs. Antibody levels are reported as endpoint dilutions. An infected, untreated NHP is included (red triangle) as a control for immune responses indicative of disease progression. Error bars represent means ± SD.

  • Fig. 4

    Cell-mediated immune response in cynomolgus macaques. (A) Number of IFN-γ–secreting cells per million PBMCs 14 days after vaccination. (B) Number of IFN-γ–secreting cells per million lymphocytes 14 days after vaccination. (C) Number of IFN-γ–secreting cells per million PBMCs 7 days after challenge. (D) Flow cytometry analysis of cell populations present in sample from survivors and nonsurvivors 7 days after challenge. Granulocytes represent the major proportion of cells in nonsurvivor animals, whereas cells from survivors are mainly lymphocytes. The percentages of granulocytes are indicated on the dot plot. (E) Percentage of T cells in IFN-γ–producing cells 7 days after challenge. An infected, untreated NHP is included (red triangle) as a control for immune responses indicative of disease progression. Error bars represent means ± SD.

  • Fig. 5

    Cytokine and chemokine levels in cynomolgus macaques. (A and B) Serum cytokine and chemokine levels for surviving and nonsurviving NHPs evaluated (A) immediately before and 7 days after vaccination or (B) immediately before and 6 to 10 days after challenge. Circles represent NHPs vaccinated 28 days before challenge, whereas squares represent NHPs treated 30 min after challenge. An infected, untreated NHP is included (red triangle) as a control for immune responses indicative of disease progression. Error bars represent means ± SD.

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