08 February 2012
Vol 4, Issue 120

About The Cover

Cover image expansion

ONLINE COVER Pas de Deux. The classic partnership of the immune system is that of the innate and adaptive arms. In this week's issue of Science Translational Medicine, Garaude et al. focus on another pairing that provokes a robust response to a cancer vaccine in mice. This dance between two receptors—toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5; shown in red in the endocytic vesicle of an antigen-presenting dendritic cell) and NOD-like receptor C4 [NLRC4; a part of the inflammasome (shown as a purple and blue doughnut)]—results in synergistic stimulation of an immune response to a cancer vaccine composed of irradiated tumor cells made to express the bacterial protein flagellin (yellow). Through its interaction with TLR5, flagellin enters the cytosol where it activates the NLRC4 inflammasome to cause maturation and secretion of cytokines, activation of tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and tumor rejection—without the need to identify, purify, and produce large amounts of specific tumor antigens. See also the accompanying Focus by Berzovsky. [CREDIT: B. STRAUCH/SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE]