Research ArticleINFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

A resident stromal cell population actively restrains innate immune response in the propagation phase of colitis pathogenesis in mice

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Science Translational Medicine  21 Jul 2021:
Vol. 13, Issue 603, eabb5071
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abb5071

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Leveraging stromal cells

Reducing the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways has been shown to have therapeutic effects in animal models and in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to available therapies. Here, Gao et al. investigated the endogenous immune mechanisms activated in IBD to identify potential therapeutic targets. The authors identified a population of stromal cells marked by Twist2 that suppresses inflammation in animal models of IBD by producing and suppressing inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization. In patients, they identified an inverse correlation between severity of disease and stromal cell Cox2 expression. Targeting this endogenous signaling might be an effective strategy to reduce inflammation in IBD.

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