Research ArticleHIV

Heightened resistance to host type 1 interferons characterizes HIV-1 at transmission and after antiretroviral therapy interruption

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Science Translational Medicine  13 Jan 2021:
Vol. 13, Issue 576, eabd8179
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abd8179

Putting pressure on HIV

Type 1 interferons provide early host immune defense against viruses, including HIV-1, by promoting expression of proteins that have direct or indirect antiviral activity. It remains unclear how viruses that persist long term, such as HIV-1, escape type 1 interferon–mediated pressure. Gondim et al. characterize interferon resistance in HIV-1 isolates acquired from HIV-1–infected individuals over several years. The authors found that HIV-1 isolates acquired at the time of initial infection or during interruption of antiretroviral therapy were the most resistant to type 1 interferons. These findings underpin the importance of type 1 interferons in controlling HIV-1 infection in the host.

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