Research ArticleHIV

Early antiretroviral therapy in neonates with HIV-1 infection restricts viral reservoir size and induces a distinct innate immune profile

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Science Translational Medicine  27 Nov 2019:
Vol. 11, Issue 520, eaax7350
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aax7350

Early to treat, early to thrive

Timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for HIV can influence viral reservoir seeding and also the immune response, but this has not been well characterized in neonatal HIV infection. To discern how ART affects neonates, Garcia-Broncano et al. longitudinally studied infants from Botswana who were placed on ART hours or months after birth. They discovered that early initiation of therapy reduces seeding of the viral reservoir and also modulated NK cell and T cell responses to HIV. Their results show that immediate ART initiation, even earlier than the current guidelines of a few weeks, could provide real benefit to infants with HIV.

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