Research ArticleHIV

The replication-competent HIV-1 latent reservoir is primarily established near the time of therapy initiation

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Science Translational Medicine  09 Oct 2019:
Vol. 11, Issue 513, eaaw5589
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaw5589

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Au revoir HIV reservoir?

Curing HIV requires eliminating the latent viral reservoir. To better understand how this reservoir is formed, Abrahams et al. examined longitudinal samples from nine South African women with HIV. HIV was grown from resting CD4+ T cells isolated after several years of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and compared to viral sequences from longitudinal samples collected before ART. They found that in most subjects, reservoir viral sequences were related to viruses present at the time of ART initiation. These results suggest that the majority of the latent reservoir is seeded in response to therapy and likely is not continually formed prior to ART. HIV treatment and cure efforts could potentially exploit this information to limit the size of the reservoir when treatment is initiated.

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