Research ArticleAtrial Fibrillation

Cardiac glial cells release neurotrophic S100B upon catheter-based treatment of atrial fibrillation

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Science Translational Medicine  22 May 2019:
Vol. 11, Issue 493, eaav7770
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aav7770

Treating the nervous ticker

Catheter ablation induces tissue damage in specific regions of the heart in patients with atrial fibrillation (rapid irregular heartbeat) to correct abnormal electrical signals. Although effective, the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. Scherschel et al. demonstrated that cryothermal ablation induced release of S100B, a marker of neuronal injury, from glial cells within mouse hearts. S100B stimulated nerve growth and reduced neuronal electrical activity. In patients receiving ablations, higher serum concentration of S100B after the procedure was associated with lower recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Further study is warranted to understand how ablation-induced injury to the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system contributes to patient outcomes.

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