Research ArticleHIV

Augmentation of HIV-specific T cell function by immediate treatment of hyperacute HIV-1 infection

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Science Translational Medicine  22 May 2019:
Vol. 11, Issue 493, eaau0528
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau0528

Keeping it FRESH in HIV

HIV infection affects the immune system beyond infected CD4+ T cells and can cause systemic immune dysfunctions even when the virus is controlled by antiretroviral treatment. To determine how early treatment affects anti-HIV T cell responses, Ndhlovu et al. examined samples from the FRESH cohort, which enables analysis of hyperacute infection. They compared HIV-specific CD8+ T cells from women who initiated treatment within 2 days of HIV diagnosis to those that started treatment during the acute or chronic phase of infection. CD8+ T cells from individuals that started treatment immediately had preserved functionality, likely due to limited viremia. The antiviral capacity of these cells may be a useful goal for HIV vaccine design.

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