24 April 2019
Vol 11, Issue 489

About The Cover

Cover image expansion

ONLINE COVER Break It Up. CD40 receptor binding to CD40 ligand (CD40L) allows B cells (green) to interact with T cells (orange). These interactions lead to high affinity adaptive immune responses that are beneficial for fighting pathogens but detrimental when directed against self targets, such as in autoimmunity. To overcome thrombotic side effects observed with previous antibody-based CD40 therapies, Karnell et al. designed a nonantibody CD40L-targeting molecule that disrupts T cell-B cell collaboration. The molecule inhibited activation of human B cells in vitro, diminished vaccine responses in healthy adults, and lowered disease scores when given to patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [CREDIT: DENNIS KUNKEL MICROSCOPY/SCIENCE SOURCE]