Research ArticlePsychiatry

Using fMRI connectivity to define a treatment-resistant form of post-traumatic stress disorder

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Science Translational Medicine  03 Apr 2019:
Vol. 11, Issue 486, eaal3236
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aal3236

Article Information

vol. 11 no. 486

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  • Received for publication November 1, 2016
  • Resubmitted February 1, 2018
  • Accepted for publication November 7, 2018
  • .

Author Information

  1. Amit Etkin1,2,3,4,*,,
  2. Adi Maron-Katz1,2,3,4,*,
  3. Wei Wu1,2,3,4,5,*,
  4. Gregory A. Fonzo1,2,3,4,*,
  5. Julia Huemer1,2,3,*,
  6. Petra E. Vértes6,7,8,*,
  7. Brian Patenaude1,2,3,4,
  8. Jonas Richiardi9,10,
  9. Madeleine S. Goodkind11,12,
  10. Corey J. Keller1,2,3,4,
  11. Jaime Ramos-Cejudo4,13,
  12. Yevgeniya V. Zaiko1,2,3,
  13. Kathy K. Peng1,3,
  14. Emmanuel Shpigel1,2,3,4,
  15. Parker Longwell1,2,3,4,
  16. Russ T. Toll1,2,3,4,
  17. Allison Thompson1,
  18. Sanno Zack1,
  19. Bryan Gonzalez4,13,
  20. Raleigh Edelstein1,2,3,4,
  21. Jingyun Chen4,13,
  22. Irene Akingbade1,3,4,
  23. Elizabeth Weiss1,3,
  24. Roland Hart4,13,
  25. Silas Mann4,13,
  26. Kathleen Durkin4,13,
  27. Steven H. Baete4,11,12,
  28. Fernando E. Boada4,14,15,
  29. Afia Genfi4,13,
  30. Jillian Autea1,2,3,4,
  31. Jennifer Newman4,13,
  32. Desmond J. Oathes16,
  33. Steven E. Lindley1,3,
  34. Duna Abu-Amara4,13,
  35. Bruce A. Arnow1,
  36. Nicolas Crossley17,18,
  37. Joachim Hallmayer1,2,3,
  38. Silvia Fossati4,13,
  39. Barbara O. Rothbaum19,
  40. Charles R. Marmar4,13,
  41. Edward T. Bullmore6,20,21 and
  42. Ruth O’Hara1,3
  1. 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94304, USA.
  2. 2Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94304, USA.
  3. 3Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, CA 94394, USA.
  4. 4Steven and Alexandra Cohen Veterans Center for Post-traumatic Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
  5. 5School of Automation Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China.
  6. 6Department of Psychiatry, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK.
  7. 7School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK.
  8. 8The Alan Turing Institute, London NW1 2DB, UK.
  9. 9Department of Medical Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
  10. 10Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthcare AG, Lausanne, Switzerland.
  11. 11New Mexico Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA.
  12. 12Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.
  13. 13Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
  14. 14Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research (CAI2R), NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
  15. 15Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
  16. 16Center for Neuromodulation in Depression and Stress, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
  17. 17Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 6513677 Santiago, Chile.
  18. 18Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK.
  19. 19Trauma and Anxiety Recovery Program, Department of Psychiatry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
  20. 20Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB21 5EF, UK.
  21. 21ImmunoPsychiatry, Alternative Discovery and Development, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage SG1 2NY, UK.
  1. Corresponding author. Email: amitetkin{at}
  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.


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