Research ArticleRetinal Disease

Calcified nodules in retinal drusen are associated with disease progression in age-related macular degeneration

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Science Translational Medicine  07 Nov 2018:
Vol. 10, Issue 466, eaat4544
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aat4544

Article Information

vol. 10 no. 466

Print ISSN: 
Online ISSN: 
  • Received for publication March 9, 2018
  • Resubmitted August 10, 2018
  • Accepted for publication October 17, 2018
  • .

Author Information

  1. Anna C. S. Tan1,2,3,4,*,
  2. Matthew G. Pilgrim5,6,*,
  3. Sarah Fearn7,
  4. Sergio Bertazzo8,
  5. Elena Tsolaki8,
  6. Alexander P. Morrell9,
  7. Miaoling Li10,
  8. Jeffrey D. Messinger10,
  9. Rosa Dolz-Marco1,2,
  10. Jianqin Lei11,
  11. Muneeswar G. Nittala11,
  12. Srinivas R. Sadda11,12,
  13. Imre Lengyel5,13,,,
  14. K. Bailey Freund1,2,14, and
  15. Christine A. Curcio10,
  1. 1Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York, New York, NY 10022, USA.
  2. 2LuEsther T. Mertz Retinal Research Center, Manhattan, Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, NY 10075, USA.
  3. 3Singapore National Eye Center/Singapore Eye Research Institute Singapore, Singapore 168751, Singapore.
  4. 4Duke-NUS Singapore, Singapore 168751, Singapore.
  5. 5UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK.
  6. 6Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, London WC1X 8LD, UK.
  7. 7Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
  8. 8Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
  9. 9Material Physics, Aston University, Aston Express Way, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.
  10. 10Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 32594-0019, USA.
  11. 11Doheny Image Reading Center, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
  12. 12Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  13. 13Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK.
  14. 14Department of Ophthalmology, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
  1. Corresponding author. Email: i.lengyel{at}
    • * These authors contributed equally to this work.

    • Co-senior authors.


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