Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant

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Science Translational Medicine  26 Sep 2018:
Vol. 10, Issue 460, eaap9489
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aap9489

Transplant x 2

Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) receive antibiotics to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics, however, also damage the intestinal microbiota by killing beneficial commensal bacteria that inhibit pathogens and promote immune defenses. Loss of gut microbiota diversity increases the risk of adverse outcomes, including infections and graft-versus-host disease. Taur and colleagues conducted a randomized clinical trial to demonstrate the effectiveness of collecting and freezing feces before allo-HSCT, followed by fecal thawing and autologous fecal microbiota transplantation (auto-FMT) after stem cell engraftment. The authors show that auto-FMT reconstitutes major commensal bacterial populations, thereby reestablishing the patient’s gut microbiota diversity and composition.

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