Research ArticleCancer

MHC proteins confer differential sensitivity to CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade in untreated metastatic melanoma

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Science Translational Medicine  18 Jul 2018:
Vol. 10, Issue 450, eaar3342
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aar3342

MHC-ing immunotherapy response

Currently, there is no way to predict response to anti–CTLA-4 cancer immunotherapy. Using data from two published independent phase 2 clinical trials, Rodig et al. showed that MHC class I expression in advanced melanoma predicted resistance to anti–CTLA-4, but not anti-PD-1, treatment, which may need MHC class II to be effective. These results may explain why patients on combined therapy do better on average, with one drug overcoming the limitations of the other. The combination is also more toxic than single agents; knowing which drug to administer to which patients could make melanoma immunotherapy less taxing without sacrificing efficacy.

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