21 March 2018
Vol 10, Issue 433

About The Cover

Cover image expansion

ONLINE COVER OX40 Takes HBV by the Horns. Unlike adults, infants exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) are unable to clear the virus and become chronically infected. Publicover and colleagues used a mouse model of age-dependent HBV immunity and patient samples to dissect the mechanisms underlying immune responses. They discovered that the T cell stimulatory molecule OX40 (represented by these oxen) was crucial for viral control. The OX40 pathway was inactive in young mice and human infants infected with HBV. Their results suggest that boosting OX40 in chronically-infected individuals could potentially lead to productive anti-viral immunity. [CREDIT: NUTT PRATHUANGMAS/ISTOCKPHOTO]