Table 1. Clinical description and outcome of MARV-Angola–challenged NHPs.

Days after MARV challenge are in parentheses. Fever is defined as a temperature more than 2.5°C over baseline or at least 1.5°C over baseline and ≥39.7°C. Mild rash: focal areas of petechiae covering less than 10% of the skin; moderate rash: areas of petechiae covering between 10 and 40% of the skin; severe rash: areas of petechiae and/or ecchymosis covering more than 40% of the skin. Lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia are defined as a ≥35% drop in the number of lymphocytes and platelets, respectively. Leukocytosis and granulocytosis are defined as a ≥35% increase in the number of white blood cells. Hypoalbuminemia is defined as a ≥35% decrease in the level of albumin. ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; GGT, γ-glutamyltransferase; CRE, creatine; CRP, C-reactive protein.

Subject no.SexGroupClinical illnessClinical and gross pathology
0308904FControlDepression (d7); lethargy (d7);
loss of appetite (d6–7);
moderate rash (d6–7);
animal expired in p.m. on d7
ALT >10-fold ↑ (d6);
AST >10-fold ↑ (d6);
ALP >10-fold ↑ (d6);
GGT >4-fold ↑ (d6);
CRP >4-fold ↑ (d6)
0904099MControlFever (d6); depression (d7–8);
lethargy (d7–8); loss of appetite (d7–8);
mild rash (d8); rectorrhagia (d8);
animal euthanized on d8
Leukocytosis (d8); lymphopenia (d6);
ALT >10-fold ↑ (d8); AST >6-fold ↑ (d6);
AST >10-fold ↑ (d8); ALP >2-fold ↑ (d8);
GGT >3-fold ↑ (d8); BUN >4-fold ↑ (d8);
CRE >5-fold ↑ (d8); CRP >10-fold ↑ (d8)
0707061MControlFever (d6); depression (d8–9);
lethargy (d8–9); loss of appetite (d8–9);
moderate rash (d9); rectorrhagia (d9);
animal euthanized on d9
Leukocytosis (d9); lymphopenia (d6);
granulocytosis (d9); ALT >10-fold ↑ (d9);
AST >10-fold ↑ (d9); BUN >3-fold ↑ (d9);
CRE >3-fold ↑ (d9)
0907042FControlFever (d6–7); depression (d6–8);
lethargy (d6–8); loss of appetite (d5–8);
dehydration (d5–8); mild rash (d7);
moderate rash (d8); rectorrhagia (d8);
animal euthanized on d8
Thrombocytopenia (d6); granulocytosis (d6, d8);
hypoalbuminemia (d8); ALT >10-fold ↑ (d8);
AST >10-fold ↑ (d8); ALP >10-fold ↑ (d8);
GGT >5-fold ↑ (d8); CRP >10-fold ↑ (d6, d8)
0903269MControlFever (d4,6); depression (d6–8);
lethargy (d6–8); loss of appetite (d7–8);
mild rash (d7); moderate rash (d8);
animal euthanized on d8
Leukocytosis (d8); lymphopenia (d3, d6);
hypoalbuminemia (d8); ALT >6-fold ↑ (d6);
ALT >10-fold ↑ (d10); AST >10-fold ↑ (d6, d8);
ALP >4-fold ↑ (d6); ALP >10-fold ↑ (d8);
GGT >4-fold ↑ (d8); CRE >3-fold ↑ (d8);
CRP >10-fold ↑ (d8)
0908097M30–45 minFever (d2, d4, d10); loss
of appetite (d3–5)
Thrombocytopenia (d3); lymphopenia (d10);
CRP >10-fold ↑ (d3, d6, d14);
CRP >4-fold ↑ (d10)
08083572F30–45 minNoneThrombocytopenia (d3);
lymphopenia (d3, d6)
0906057M30–45 minNoneLeukocytosis (d10); granulocytosis (d10);
CRP >5-fold ↑ (d3); CRP >10-fold ↑ (d6);
CRP >8-fold (d10)
R080062F30–45 minLoss of appetite (d2)Thrombocytopenia (d3); AST >4-fold ↑ (d10);
CRP >10-fold ↑ (d3, d6); CRP >2-fold ↑ (d10)
0806012F24 hoursFever (d4, d7)ALT >2-fold ↑ (d6); ALT >4-fold ↑ (d10);
AST >4-fold ↑ (d6); AST >3-fold ↑ (d10);
ALP >2-fold ↑ (d10); GGT >2-fold ↑ (d14);
CRP >5-fold ↑ (d6); CRP >2-fold ↑ (d10)
0704019M24 hoursNoneLeukocytosis (d3); granulocytosis (d3);
CRP >10-fold ↑ (d3); CRP >3-fold ↑ (d6)
0908021M24 hoursNoneLymphopenia (d3)
08R0002F24 hoursNoneLeukocytosis (d6, d10); granulocytosis
(d6, d10); CRP >10-fold ↑ (d6)
0904047M48 hoursNoneLeukocytosis (d3, d6); granulocytosis (d3, d6);
ALT >5-fold ↑ (d10); AST >3-fold ↑ (d10);
CRP >10-fold ↑ (d3, d6); CRP >3-fold ↑ (d10)
1002065M48 hoursFever (d5)Granulocytosis (d6); ALT >2-fold ↑ (d10);
AST >2-fold ↑ (d6, d10); CRP >10-fold ↑ (d6)
0705010F48 hoursFever (d4)Leukocytosis (d6); granulocytosis (d6);
AST >10-fold ↑ (d10); CRP >10-fold ↑ (d6)
0904088F48 hoursNoneLeukocytosis (d21); granulocytosis (d21);
lymphopenia (d10); ALT >10-fold ↑ (d10);
AST >10-fold ↑ (d10)
0906220F72 hoursNoneLeukocytosis (d6); granulocytosis (d6);
thrombocytopenia (d10); ALT >6-fold ↑ (d10);
AST >7-fold ↑ (d10); ALP >2-fold ↑ (d10, d14);
GGT >2-fold ↑ (d10, d14, d21);
CRP >10-fold ↑ (d6, d10)
0810254F72 hoursNoneGranulocytosis (d10); thrombocytopenia (d10);
ALT >10-fold ↑ (d10); AST >10-fold ↑ (d10);
CRP >10-fold ↑ (d10)
0906145M72 hoursFever (d4)Leukocytosis (d10); granulocytosis (d10);
lymphopenia (d6); thrombocytopenia
(d6, d10, d14); ALT >10-fold ↑ (d10);
ALT >4-fold ↑ (d14); AST >10-fold ↑ (d10);
ALP >3-fold ↑ (d10); ALP >2-fold ↑ (d14);
GGT >2-fold ↑ (d10); CRP >10-fold ↑ (d6, d10)
0807175M72 hoursFever (d7–9); loss of appetite (d5–11);
mild rash (d9–11)
Leukocytosis (d10); granulocytosis
(d10); thrombocytopenia (d10);
hypoalbuminemia (d6, d10, d14);
ALT >8-fold ↑ (d10); ALT >3-fold ↑ (d14);
AST >10-fold ↑ (d10); ALP >2-fold ↑ (d10);
GGT >4-fold ↑ (d10); CRP >10-fold ↑ (d6, d10)