Research ArticleInfectious Disease

Rapid antigen tests for dengue virus serotypes and Zika virus in patient serum

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Science Translational Medicine  27 Sep 2017:
Vol. 9, Issue 409, eaan1589
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aan1589

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Distinguishing dengue from Zika

More than mere summer pests, mosquitoes can transmit viruses, such as dengue and Zika. Diagnosing infections of these related flaviviruses can be difficult because of cross-reactivity in diagnostic tests. Bosch et al. developed monoclonal antibodies to detect viral nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein antigens specific to dengue and Zika. Incorporating the antibodies into an immunochromatography format yielded a rapid diagnostic assay that produces a visual readout in the presence of NS1. The assay identified the four dengue serotypes and Zika viral infections without cross-reaction when testing human serum samples from endemic areas in Central and South America and India. This approach could be useful for developing rapid diagnostics for other emerging pathogens.

Abstract

The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak demonstrates that cost-effective clinical diagnostics are urgently needed to detect and distinguish viral infections to improve patient care. Unlike dengue virus (DENV), ZIKV infections during pregnancy correlate with severe birth defects, including microcephaly and neurological disorders. Because ZIKV and DENV are related flaviviruses, their homologous proteins and nucleic acids can cause cross-reactions and false-positive results in molecular, antigenic, and serologic diagnostics. We report the characterization of monoclonal antibody pairs that have been translated into rapid immunochromatography tests to specifically detect the viral nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein antigen and distinguish the four DENV serotypes (DENV1–4) and ZIKV without cross-reaction. To complement visual test analysis and remove user subjectivity in reading test results, we used image processing and data analysis for data capture and test result quantification. Using a 30-μl serum sample, the sensitivity and specificity values of the DENV1–4 tests and the pan-DENV test, which detects all four dengue serotypes, ranged from 0.76 to 1.00. Sensitivity/specificity for the ZIKV rapid test was 0.81/0.86, respectively, using a 150-μl serum input. Serum ZIKV NS1 protein concentrations were about 10-fold lower than corresponding DENV NS1 concentrations in infected patients; moreover, ZIKV NS1 protein was not detected in polymerase chain reaction–positive patient urine samples. Our rapid immunochromatography approach and reagents have immediate application in differential clinical diagnosis of acute ZIKV and DENV cases, and the platform can be applied toward developing rapid antigen diagnostics for emerging viruses.

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