Research ArticleCancer

Cancer immunotherapy with recombinant poliovirus induces IFN-dominant activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen–specific CTLs

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Science Translational Medicine  20 Sep 2017:
Vol. 9, Issue 408, eaan4220
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aan4220

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A double virus’s double attack on cancer

Oncolytic viruses, which are optimized to kill cancer cells without harming the surrounding normal tissues, have gathered increasing interest in recent years. One such virus is PVSRIPO, an engineered hybrid of poliovirus and rhinovirus that cannot attack neurons but retains cytotoxicity in neoplastic cells, including glioma. Brown et al. determined that PVSRIPO stimulates anticancer immunity by two mechanisms: lysing tumor cells to release a mix of tumor and viral antigens, as well as sublethally infecting antigen-presenting cells and thereby stimulating an interferon-driven immune response in the tumor microenvironment.