Research ArticleTransplantation

Donor pulmonary intravascular nonclassical monocytes recruit recipient neutrophils and mediate primary lung allograft dysfunction

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Science Translational Medicine  14 Jun 2017:
Vol. 9, Issue 394, eaal4508
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aal4508

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Nonclassical monocytes prompt primary graft dysfunction

Despite concerted efforts, primary graft dysfunction is a major cause of graft failure after organ transplantation. In lung transplantation, primary graft dysfunction is known to be mediated by early neutrophil infiltration. Zheng et al. used syngeneic and allogeneic mouse models of lung transplantation to show that nonclassical monocytes were the key cell population recruiting these destructive neutrophils. These intravascular cells were donor-derived and were also detectable in human lung grafts being used for transplant. Because depletion of nonclassical monocytes prevented primary graft dysfunction in the mouse models, targeting this cell population during human transplant could lead to improved rates of graft success.