Research ArticleTransplantation

Donor pulmonary intravascular nonclassical monocytes recruit recipient neutrophils and mediate primary lung allograft dysfunction

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Science Translational Medicine  14 Jun 2017:
Vol. 9, Issue 394, eaal4508
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aal4508

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Nonclassical monocytes prompt primary graft dysfunction

Despite concerted efforts, primary graft dysfunction is a major cause of graft failure after organ transplantation. In lung transplantation, primary graft dysfunction is known to be mediated by early neutrophil infiltration. Zheng et al. used syngeneic and allogeneic mouse models of lung transplantation to show that nonclassical monocytes were the key cell population recruiting these destructive neutrophils. These intravascular cells were donor-derived and were also detectable in human lung grafts being used for transplant. Because depletion of nonclassical monocytes prevented primary graft dysfunction in the mouse models, targeting this cell population during human transplant could lead to improved rates of graft success.

Abstract

Primary graft dysfunction is the predominant driver of mortality and graft loss after lung transplantation. Recruitment of neutrophils as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to cause primary graft dysfunction; however, the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil influx into the injured lung are incompletely understood. We found that donor-derived intravascular nonclassical monocytes (NCMs) are retained in human and murine donor lungs used in transplantation and can be visualized at sites of endothelial injury after reperfusion. When NCMs in the donor lungs were depleted, either pharmacologically or genetically, neutrophil influx and lung graft injury were attenuated in both allogeneic and syngeneic models. Similar protection was observed when the patrolling function of donor NCMs was impaired by deletion of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1. Unbiased transcriptomic profiling revealed up-regulation of MyD88 pathway genes and a key neutrophil chemoattractant, CXCL2, in donor-derived NCMs after reperfusion. Reconstitution of NCM-depleted donor lungs with wild-type but not MyD88-deficient NCMs rescued neutrophil migration. Donor NCMs, through MyD88 signaling, were responsible for CXCL2 production in the allograft and neutralization of CXCL2 attenuated neutrophil influx. These findings suggest that therapies to deplete or inhibit NCMs in donor lung might ameliorate primary graft dysfunction with minimal toxicity to the recipient.

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