Research ArticleHIV

Nonprogressing HIV-infected children share fundamental immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection

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Science Translational Medicine  28 Sep 2016:
Vol. 8, Issue 358, pp. 358ra125
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aag1048

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HIV progression at a standstill

Although most people that get infected with HIV develop AIDS, rare individuals maintain immune function in the presence of virus, a phenomenon also seen in natural hosts of the closely related SIV. Muenchhoff et al. describe a cohort of pediatric HIV patients who have normal CD4 T cell counts, despite high viremia and lack of antiviral treatment. These children have low immune activation, including less chemokine receptor CCR5 expression on central memory CD4 T cells, similar to sooty mangabeys infected with SIV. The immune mechanisms described in these patients shed light on HIV pathogenesis, which may help develop future treatments.