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Delete and replace
Newer gene-editing methods hold promise for correcting human disease but so far have been hampered by low efficiencies when used in primary cells. To address this issue, Sather et al. have devised a more effective way to both disrupt and replace the CCR5 locus in human T cells, a procedure that has already been shown to improve HIV clearance.
Serotype 6 of an adeno-associated viral vector worked particularly well for delivery of megaTAL nucleases and homologous donor templates to primary human T cells, achieving efficient gene-editing rates and little toxicity. The megaTALs generate homology-directed repair (rather than previous efforts, which induce nonhomologous end-joining repair) and so was used for both deletion and accurate replacement of the CCR5 locus. The authors demonstrate that chimeric antigen receptors and an HIV fusion inhibitor inserted into the CCR5 locus ameliorate HIV infection in mice and show that their approach also works in CD34+ hematopoietic precursor cells.
Genetic mutations or engineered nucleases that disrupt the HIV co-receptor CCR5 block HIV infection of CD4+ T cells. These findings have motivated the engineering of CCR5-specific nucleases for application as HIV therapies. The efficacy of this approach relies on efficient biallelic disruption of CCR5, and the ability to efficiently target sequences that confer HIV resistance to the CCR5 locus has the potential to further improve clinical outcomes. We used RNA-based nuclease expression paired with adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated delivery of a CCR5-targeting donor template to achieve highly efficient targeted recombination in primary human T cells. This method consistently achieved 8 to 60% rates of homology-directed recombination into the CCR5 locus in T cells, with over 80% of cells modified with an MND-GFP expression cassette exhibiting biallelic modification. MND-GFP–modified T cells maintained a diverse repertoire and engrafted in immune-deficient mice as efficiently as unmodified cells. Using this method, we integrated sequences coding chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) into the CCR5 locus, and the resulting targeted CAR T cells exhibited antitumor or anti-HIV activity. Alternatively, we introduced the C46 HIV fusion inhibitor, generating T cell populations with high rates of biallelic CCR5 disruption paired with potential protection from HIV with CXCR4 co-receptor tropism. Finally, this protocol was applied to adult human mobilized CD34+ cells, resulting in 15 to 20% homologous gene targeting. Our results demonstrate that high-efficiency targeted integration is feasible in primary human hematopoietic cells and highlight the potential of gene editing to engineer T cell products with myriad functional properties.
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