Research ArticlesMalnutrition

Functional characterization of IgA-targeted bacterial taxa from undernourished Malawian children that produce diet-dependent enteropathy

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Science Translational Medicine  25 Feb 2015:
Vol. 7, Issue 276, pp. 276ra24
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa4877

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BugFACS Inc.

In a new study, Kau et al. show that bacterial targets of gut immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for childhood undernutrition. Purifying IgA-targeted microbes from fecal samples collected during the first 2 years of life from Malawian children using a method called BugFACS, these authors demonstrate that IgA responses to several types of bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae, correlate with undernutrition. Transplanting IgA-bound bacteria from undernourished children to germ-free mice led to disruption of the gut lining (epithelium), weight loss, and sepsis in animals consuming a nutrient-deficient Malawian diet. This was prevented by a nutrient-sufficient diet or two IgA-targeted bacterial species from a healthy donor’s microbiota. Dissecting a collection of cultured IgA-targeted bacterial strains from an undernourished donor revealed that Enterobacteriaceae interacted with other community members to produce pathology. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood undernutrition.

Abstract

To gain insights into the interrelationships among childhood undernutrition, the gut microbiota, and gut mucosal immune/barrier function, we purified bacterial strains targeted by immunoglobulin A (IgA) from the fecal microbiota of two cohorts of Malawian infants and children. IgA responses to several bacterial taxa, including Enterobacteriaceae, correlated with anthropometric measurements of nutritional status in longitudinal studies. The relationship between IgA responses and growth was further explained by enteropathogen burden. Gnotobiotic mouse recipients of an IgA+ bacterial consortium purified from the gut microbiota of undernourished children exhibited a diet-dependent enteropathy characterized by rapid disruption of the small intestinal and colonic epithelial barrier, weight loss, and sepsis that could be prevented by administering two IgA-targeted bacterial species from a healthy microbiota. Dissection of a culture collection of 11 IgA-targeted strains from an undernourished donor, sufficient to transmit these phenotypes, disclosed that Enterobacteriaceae interacted with other consortium members to produce enteropathy. These findings indicate that bacterial targets of IgA responses have etiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications for childhood undernutrition.

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