Research ArticleAutism Spectrum Disorder

Disruption at the PTCHD1 Locus on Xp22.11 in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

Science Translational Medicine  15 Sep 2010:
Vol. 2, Issue 49, pp. 49ra68
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001267

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Abstract

Autism is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex mode of inheritance. It is one of the most highly heritable of the complex disorders, although the underlying genetic factors remain largely unknown. Here, we report mutations in the X-chromosome PTCHD1 (patched-related) gene in seven families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in three families with intellectual disability. A 167-kilobase microdeletion spanning exon 1 was found in two brothers, one with ASD and the other with a learning disability and ASD features; a 90-kilobase microdeletion spanning the entire gene was found in three males with intellectual disability in a second family. In 900 probands with ASD and 208 male probands with intellectual disability, we identified seven different missense changes (in eight male probands) that were inherited from unaffected mothers and not found in controls. Two of the ASD individuals with missense changes also carried a de novo deletion at another ASD susceptibility locus (DPYD and DPP6), suggesting complex genetic contributions. In additional males with ASD, we identified deletions in the 5′ flanking region of PTCHD1 that disrupted a complex noncoding RNA and potential regulatory elements; equivalent changes were not found in male control individuals. Thus, our systematic screen of PTCHD1 and its 5′ flanking regions suggests that this locus is involved in ~1% of individuals with ASD and intellectual disability.

Footnotes

  • * Present address: CNRS/Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 75005, France.

  • See supplementary material for full list of names and affiliations.

  • Citation: A. Noor, A.Whibley, C. R.Marshall, P. J. Gianakopoulos, A. Piton, A. R. Carson, M. Orlic-Milacic, A. Lionel, D. Sato, D. Pinto, I. Drmic, C. Noakes, L. Senman, X. Zhang, R. Mo, J. Gauthier, J. Crosbie, A. T. Pagnamenta, J. Munson, A. M. Estes, A. Fiebig, A. Franke, S. Schreiber, A. F. R. Stewart, R. Roberts, R. McPherson, S. J. Guter, E. H. Cook Jr., G. Dawson, G. D. Schellenberg, A. Battaglia, E. Maestrini, Autism Genome Project Consortium, L. Jeng, T.Hutchison, E. Rajcan-Separovic, A. E. Chudley, S. M. E. Lewis, X. Liu, J. Holden, B. Fernandez, L. Zwaigenbaum, S. E. Bryson, W. Roberts, P. Szatmari, L. Gallagher, M. R. Stratton, J. Gecz, A. F. Brady, C. E. Schwartz, R. J. Schachar, A. P.Monaco, G. A. Rouleau, C. Hui, F. L. Raymond, S. W. Scherer, J. B. Vincent, Disruption at the PTCHD1 locus on Xp22.11 in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Sci. Transl. Med. 2, 49ra68 (2010).

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