Research ArticleInfectious Disease

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Delineate Immunogenicity of Influenza Vaccine Subtypes

Science Translational Medicine  31 Mar 2010:
Vol. 2, Issue 25, pp. 25ra24
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3000759

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Abstract

A variety of different vaccine types are available for H1N1 influenza A virus infections; however, their immunological mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here, we show that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and type I interferon (IFN)–mediated signaling delineate the immunogenicity of live attenuated virus, inactivated whole-virus (WV), and split-virus vaccines. Although Toll-like receptor 7 acted as the adjuvant receptor for the immunogenicity of both live virus and WV vaccines, the requirement for type I IFN production by pDCs for the immunogenicity of the vaccines was restricted to WV. A split vaccine commonly used in humans failed to immunize naïve mice, but a pDC-activating adjuvant could restore immunogenicity. In blood from human adults, however, split vaccine alone could recall memory T cell responses, underscoring the importance of this adjuvant pathway for primary, but not secondary, vaccination.

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