Research ArticleGUT MICROBIOTA

Gut microbiota composition and functional changes in inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome

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Science Translational Medicine  19 Dec 2018:
Vol. 10, Issue 472, eaap8914
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aap8914

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Distinguishing two similar gut disorders

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are two of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In new work, Vich Vila and colleagues have characterized the gut microbiota composition of both disorders using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 1792 individuals. Analyses involving bacterial taxonomy, metabolic functions, antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, and bacterial growth rates showed key differences between these two gut disorders. On the basis of gut microbiota composition differences, patients with IBD could be distinguished from those with IBS.

Abstract

Changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with two of the most common gastrointestinal diseases, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Here, we performed a case-control analysis using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 1792 individuals with IBD and IBS compared with control individuals in the general population. Despite substantial overlap between the gut microbiome of patients with IBD and IBS compared with control individuals, we were able to use gut microbiota composition differences to distinguish patients with IBD from those with IBS. By combining species-level profiles and strain-level profiles with bacterial growth rates, metabolic functions, antibiotic resistance, and virulence factor analyses, we identified key bacterial species that may be involved in two common gastrointestinal diseases.

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